Difference between Epigeal and Hypogeal Seed Germination. The term germination designates the overall processes beginning with the imbibition of water by. The main difference between epigeal and hypogeal germination is that in epigeal germination, the cotyledons emerge out of the soil during. Hope you already know that what is cotyledon and how seeds germinate. Epigeal; In this type of germination, the seed /cotyledons emerge out of the soil or .

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Some genera in which this happens are:.

In seeds with epigeal germination, the cotyledons are brought above the soil due to elongation of the hypocotyl. Plants that germinwtion epigeal germinatlon need external nutrients rather quickly in order to develop, so they are more frequent on nutrient-rich soils. In addition to food storage, cotyledons undergo photosynthesis and produce food for the development of the embryo.

Among dicotyledons, gram, pea Fig. Hypogeal germination is the other type of germination in which the cotyledons remain inside the soil. On the other hand, they are more resistant when a flooding takes place. Germination begins with the imbibition of water into the seed, which in turn increases the metabolism and germinatioj division inside the seed, leading to the enlargement of the embryo.

Hypogeal germination implies that the cotyledons stay below the ground. Next, the hypocotyl grows so quickly that it forms a loop which comes out of the soil and pulls out the rest of the seed.

Epigeal and Hypogeal Germination | Edinburgh Garden School

The straight radicle comes out of the seed and fixes the seed to the soil with the secondary roots developing from the radicle. It is possible that within the same genus one species shows epigeal germination while another species shows hypogeal germination. The cotyledons become green and leaf-like, while the plumule slowly develops into leafy shoot. The evolutionary strategy is that the plant produces a large number of seeds, of which statistically a number survive.


An example of a plant with epigeal germination is the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris. After this hypocotyl grows due to which two papery cotyledons enclosed by endosperm are pulled out of the soil.

Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August The cotyledons in epigeal germination turn green and undergo photosynthesis while epigexl cotyledons in hypogeal anv do not undergo photosynthesis. Duke introduced the germinatoin cryptocotylar and phanerocotylar as synonyms for hypogeal and epigeal respectively, because he didn’t consider these terms etymologically correct.

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Meanwhile adventitious roots develop from above the radicle and form a fibrous root system Fig. It arches out and carries the plumule above ground.

This page was last edited on 15 Octoberat Epigeal germination implies that the cotyledons are pushed above ground.

Because the cotyledon stays below the ground, it is much less vulnerable to for example night-frost [2] or grazing.

Prominent Cotyledons in Castor.

Hypogeal germination

Cotyledons come out of the endosperm when it is consumed. Plants that show hypogeal germination need relatively little in the way of external nutrients to grow, therefore they are more frequent on nutrient-poor soils.

Retrieved from ” https: Normally, the cotyledon is fleshy, and contains many nutrients that are used for germination. Plants that show epigeal germination grow relatively fast, especially in the first phase when the leaflets unfold. The fast germination enables the plant to develop before the next flooding takes place. The radicle quickly forms new roots and establishes the seeding as a new plant Fig.


The seedling becomes heavy. The following three points will germihation the three main types of seed germination. The second leaves derived from the plumule become true leaves.

In this way, the epicotyl pushes the plumule above the ground. Some genera in which this happens are:. Vivipary is the phenomenon of giving birth to young ones in advanced stage of development. The embryo of the seed present inside the fruit continues growth while the latter is attached to the parent plant. Because the cotyledon is positioned above the ground it is much more vulnerable to damage like night-frost [2] or grazing. The plumule is not visible so long as it is covered by the base of the cotyledon in the form of a sheath just above the radicle.

Here the germinatoin, besides food storage, also perform photosynthesis till the seedling becomes independent. Differences between Epigeal and Hypogeal Germination Plants. All monocotyledons show hypogeal germination Fig. The radicle fails to develop any further but several adventitious roots grow from the base of the plumule. The relative position of gwrmination cotyledons is determined by the length of the hypocotyl.

The cotyledons remain under the soil throughout Fig. The plumule pierces the fibrous pericarp and emerges like a horn. In epigeal germination, the cotyledons emerge out of the soil while in hypogeal germination, the cotyledons remain inside the soil.

This means the hypocotyl shows a greater elongation in epigeal germination while the hypocotyl is short in hypogeal germination. Differences between Florigen and Other Hormones.