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There are three clock pulses to the left of the cursor. The majority carrier is the electron while the minority carrier is the hole. In the case of the 2N transistor, which had a higher Beta than the 2N transistor, the Q point of the former shifted higher up the loadline toward saturation.

Darlington Boylwstad Circuit a. VO calculated is close to V 2 of Probe plot.

Very Good or Better. This is probably the largest deviation to be tolerated.


Thus, there should not be much of a change in the voltage and current levels if the transistors are interchanged. There are five clock pulses to the left of icrcuitos cursor. Curves are essentially the same with new scales as shown. For Q1, Q2, and Q3: It is essentially the reverse saturation leakage current of the diode, comprised mainly of minority carriers.

Computer Exercise Pspice Simulation 1.

Thus, VO is considerably reduced. Using this as a criterion of stability, it becomes apparent that the voltage divider bias circuit is the more stable of the two. The pulse of milliseconds of the TTL pulse is identical to that of the edicioh pulse. Since the stability figures of both of those circuits are so small, the apparent greater stability of the collector feedback circuit without RE is probably the result of measurement variability.


See above circuit diagrams. Example of a calculation: In close agreement 3.

The LCD depends on ambient light to utilize the change in either reflectivity or transmissivity caused by the application of an electric voltage. Ideally, the propagation delays determined by the simulation should be identical to that determined in the laboratory. The enhancement MOSFET does not have a channel established by the doping sequence but relies on the gate-to-source voltage to create a channel.

The indicated propagation delay is about Experimental Determination of Logic States a.

VCsat and VP define the region of nonlinearity for each device. Beta did increase with increasing levels of VCE. Collector Feedback Configuration with RE a. Improved Series Regulator a. Replace R1 with 20 Kohm resistor.

Rights and Permissions Department. The voltage divider configuration should make the circuit Beta independent, if it is well designed. The measured voltage VCE is somewhat high due to the measured current IC being bboylestad its design value.


Darlington Input and Output Impedance a. For most applications the silicon diode is the device of choice due to its higher temperature capability. The logic state of the output terminal U3A: If not, the easiest adjustment would be the moving of the voltage- divider bias line parallel to itself by means of raising or lowering of VG.


Over the period investigated, the Off state is the prevalent one. See circuit diagram above. Computer Exercises Pspice Simulations 1. V1 12 V Collect Rare and Out-of-Print Books As one of the premier rare book sites on the Internet, Alibris has thousands of rare books, first editions, and signed books available.

Since all the system terminals are at 10 V the required difference of 0. High Frequency Response Calculations a. The most important difference between the characteristics of a diode and a simple switch is that the switch, being mechanical, is capable of conducting current in either direction while the diode only allows charge to flow through the element in one direction specifically the direction defined by the arrow of the symbol using conventional current flow.

To shift the Q point in either direction, it is easiest to adjust the bias voltage VG to bring the circuit parameters within an acceptable range of the circuit design. IF as shown in Fig. For germanium it is a 6. Usually, however, technology only permits a close replica of the desired characteristics. The voltage-divider configuration is the least sensitive with the fixed-bias configuration very sensitive.