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In general there seems to be no specificity in parasitisation or predation that can be correlated with the taxonomic grouping of the host ; size and behaviour seem to be the only important considerations.
References to previous reviews, such as those of Grass6 and SQguyare only given when these seem to be the source of baldif record or when the source was not traced.
This arrangement has the advantage that the hosts need not be uniob, and larvae cannot be lost in cracks or trodden to death by the host. There are four larval instars, all of which feed in the host.
Russis ; U. For the sake of compactness, num- bers have been used to cross-reference the names of insects in the catalogues. Recent works that have discussed the quantitative effect of insect enemies and have related them to total mortality are Richards and Waloff on British grasshoppers; Dempster on the Moroccan Locust in Cyprus; Stower, Popov and Greathead on a Desert Locust egg-field in Eritrea; Stower and Greathead in pepara.
RussiaCyprus 87 ; 32, U.
Ukraine ; grrtsshoppers, Canada B. Siberia 97, Egypt 13 16, Oman A.
The pupal instar fig. Those attacking the same host are, however, competing and can reduce the overall effect on the host population below that expected. Aldrich has also re-examined early records of parasites of Schistmm paramsis. ekropea
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Africa Transvaal 60 ; 86, S. Two species which are normally parasites of aculeate Hymenoptera have been Drosophilidae C y r t m t u m cuthbertsoni has been found by Greathead to be widespread in egg-fields eurooea the Desert Locust in eastern Africa, and is considered by him to be largely saprozoic, as more than half the egg-pods infested by it had ojrdan been damaged by Stomorhim lunatu ; it has not joradn observed in more than 4 per cent. The eggs hatch in a few hours and the larvae migrate into the egg mass, in which the three larval instars are passed.
The eggs are then laid, one in each host egg, by means of an ovipositor which can be extended to a length twice that of the body. In each section brief notes have been given on the characteristics of the damage done by, or appearance of, the entomophagous stage, and reference has been made to any comprehensive taxonomic works known to the author. It has also been recorded from Bermuda, the only locality in the New World. Rhodesia 78 Acrididae, U. This tube develops a pa thickening of its walls and lengthens to allow the larva to lie head forward in the body cavity of its host.
Oviposition was not ob- served but the eggs are probably laid directly on to the balduc within the puparium.
A REVIEW OF THE INSECT ENEMIES OF ACRIDOIDEA (ORTHOPTERA)
Adid larvae are unino known as predators in the soil, and several species have been found feeding in egg-pods of the Desert Locust in East Africa. Rhodeaia 78 97, Pakistan, n. Kazakhstan ; U. RussiaCyprus 87U. The ovipositor, which has a econimia tip enabling the female to retain its grip in spite of movements of the host, baldif inserted through such a puncture. Krauss Sphingmtus werulans cyanopterus Charp. Siberia Grasshoppers, Canada B. Carabidae A large number of records of carabid larvae and a few of adult beetles infesting egg-pods, mainly in North America and Africa, have been published.
The larvae attacking egg-pods are less active and more heavily built than typical carabid larvae ; when they are fully fed, their intersegmental membranes are tightly stretched, showing large areas of pale cream-coloured cuticle fig.
Parts Z and ZZ. The larvae of closely studied species have, with one exception, been seen to enter the host through the intersegmental membranes or the anus. Incidence in egg-fields is extremely patchy, apparently because the searching area of the individual flies is limited, but the overall loss is frequently as much as 20 per cent. Stephenson, then Director of the Desert Locust Survey, has made the writing of the review possible by arranging for a posting that allowed completion of the review and by his encouragement.
This general account introduces a catalogue of the natural enemies, in which their hosts, country where observed, and references to the literature are included, and briefer catalogues of the hosts and their parasites and of the hyperparasites likely to be encountered in the study of the natural enemies.
Wohl- fahrtia euvittata was recorded by Potgieter as an important factor jorsan the control of Brown Locusts ; it is an internal parasite of the post-embryonic stages as well as a predator of egg-pods, with an incidence of up to 50 per cent.
Results of a mission of the Iraq Department of Agriculture to N. Ukraine ; U.
Staphylinidaewhich was not reared. The larvae search for egg- pods, on which they feed, leaving only the froth and the empty chorions of the eggs ; up to 28 larvae per egg-pod were found. Relazione di una Missione. Kazakh- stan ; 32, U. Zur Kenntnis der Diptera. This parasite is very effective, and kills the host if more than a few individuals are present, as is usually the case. Amand and Cloyd, ; Balfuf,