ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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The pH dependence of the zeta potential is investigated with the background electrolyte of 1 mM KCl solution.
The values given in parentheses are for information only and may be approximate. Nonwoven greige cotton compares well with other commercial materials when analyzed for its performance as an incontinence layer surrounding the absorbent core. Moisture determinations The water content results via Karl Fischer titration KFTfollowing ASTMtrack the moisture results based on the Kett moisture determination balance that utilizes an infrared lamp Table 3.
Observation of this phenomenon is based on more accessible water binding sites, i. Depending on the end-use application, a hydroentangled nonwoven fabric made by using a blend of cotton mote fibers and greige bleach-less cleaned cotton lint gave optimal swelling and reasonably good moisture uptake. The weight of the water is reported as the absorptive capacity grams of water held by 1 g of fabric.
The sample was secured in a paraffin base, which had a small effect on the comber noil pattern. From this state, further water sorption then assumes the character of a capillary-like condensation and has been characterized as free water, i. It is also interesting to speculate how variation in cellulose crystallite size may affect binding of water to the cellulosics of this study.
ASTM D—standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration. This study has shown that the ability of cotton gin mote fibers to modulate swelling and moisture uptake is beneficial in absorbent products. Measurement of fabric polarity, charge, relative composition, swelling, and porosity Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples.
All weights were made in a standard conditioned laboratory.
ASTM D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
The fluid dynamics of the electrochemical double-layer model enables measurement of functional properties similar to those that occur at the solid-liquid interface of incontinence materials [ 12 ]. Cotton fiber is naturally renewable and biodegradable. This is somewhat consistent with a recent report on cotton water sorption based on sorption isotherms astmm cotton by Yakumin et al.
We are IntechOpen, the world’s leading publisher of Open Access books. Swell test, k min Built by scientists, for scientists. Each blend was formulated directly in the glass KFT vials by weight basis. Here we contrast cotton by-product blends in r1117 cotton nonwovens with a similar previous study where polyester was blended with precleaned greige cotton lint Edited by Matheus Poletto.
The calculated pattern matches the observed patterns [ 28 ], especially that of the gin motes, satm well despite the lack of any consideration of amorphous material in the calculation.
More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made with spun yarns. In recent years, the preference to astk cotton fibers in nonwoven absorbent products has increased.
Please first log in with a verified email before subscribing to alerts. The polyester water content value is consistent with that found in literature of fiber at standard testing conditions, around 0.
Empty sample bottles were weighed and then filled with 1 g samples and reweighed. The calculated surface-to-volume ratio of smaller cellulose crystallites, as observed with the cotton by-products, is higher than the greige cotton, which infers more accessible hydroxyls for bound water.
ASTM D 1117
The pH of the sample is about 5. Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber. This model is contrasted with experimental models, including one based on TEM images of a water swollen cotton fiber to image water-accessible surfaces. The basket is dropped from a height of 25 mm into a water bath, and the time it takes the sample and basket to sink is measured as sink time.
First chapter Depolymerization and Activation of Lignin: Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples. August 24th Published: A sample of bleached d11117 prepared by similar process was not available for the testing.
Standard – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics (Withdrawn ) ASTM D –
The Segal Crystallinity Index values arise almost completely from the overlap of the wide observed peaks Results and discussion 3.
The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed.
The properties of the cotton materials are discussed in light of their water binding properties related to potential absorbent applications. Hydroentanglement of fibrous webs into nonwoven fabric structures The needle-punched webs of the different fiber blends were uniformly hydroentangled using a Fleissner MiniJet system Figure 1. As a check, standard oven drying was used on the UC cotton and polyester fibers, generating a moisture content of 7.
December 9th DOI: The water content in the blank vial was 0. Abstract Greige raw cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for use in absorbent nonwoven products. Thus, the increased swelling due to increasing the ratio of UC may be a result of an additive contribution of waxes from the greige cotton, which are expected to contribute hydrophobicity to the fiber surface analogous to more hydrophobic fibers like polyester.
A peak width at half maximum height of 1. Subscription pricing is determined by: The samples were weighed into 0. The spectra all show the profile characteristic of cellulose I [ 1819 ]. The needle-punched webs of the different fiber blends were uniformly hydroentangled using a Fleissner MiniJet system Figure 1.
Thus, it is demonstrated that the use of less expensive cotton gin motes—the by-product of cotton ginning process—in blends with cleaned greige d117 lint can potentially be useful and competitive for many nonwoven end-use products where absorbency or moisture uptake, asgm, biodegradability, and sustainability are desirable.